- Levels of organization of living matter,
- Populations, communities, ecosystems,
- Forms of biological relationships in the community
- Positive attitude,
- Negative attitude,
- Neutral attitude,
- Circulation of matter and energy,
- The structure of the biosphere,
- Evolution of the biosphere,
- The current state of the environment
- Atmosphere - the outer shell of the biosphere,
- Biological productivity of ecosystems,
- Conservation and sustainable environmental futures,
Environmental problems of the biosphere
- Human impact on flora and fauna,
- Limits of stability,
- Natural resources and their use,
- Radioactive contamination of the biosphere
- Contamination of soil (
- Contamination of natural waters (
Evolution of the biosphere worked toward growing complexity of biological communities,
multiplying the number of species and improve their adaptability. Evolutionary
process was accompanied by an increase in the efficiency of energy conversion and
substances in biological systems: organisms, populations, communities.
The peak of the evolution of life on Earth was the man who as a biological
view on the basis of numerous changes have not only consciousness
(perfect form of maps of the world), but also the ability
to make and use tools of his life.
Through tools mankind has begun to create actual
artificial environment of their habitats (settlements, shelter, clothing, food
food, machinery and much more). Since then the evolution of the biosphere came into
new phase, where the human factor has become a powerful driving force of nature.
The biosphere and man. Noosphere.
The term "noosphere" was offered v1927 by the French mathematician and
philosopher E. Leroy. "Noos" - an ancient Greek name of the human mind.
The first man-made culture-Palaeolithic (Stone Age) - continued
approximately 20-30 thousand years. It coincided with a prolonged period of glaciation.
The economic basis of human society has been hunting for large
animals: a noble and reindeer, woolly rhinoceros, donkey, horse,
mammoth tour. At the parking rights of the Stone Age are numerous
bones of wild animals - evidence of successful hunting. Intensive destruction
large herbivores led to a relatively rapid reduction in their
size and the disappearance of many species. If small herbivores could
compensate the losses from persecution by hunters high birth rates, the
large animals because of evolutionary history, were deprived of this opportunity.
Further difficulties arose due to changes in natural conditions in
late Paleolithic period. 10-12 thousand years ago came a sharp warming, retreated
glaciers, forests spread in Europe, extinct large animals. This created
new conditions of life, disrupt the economic base of human
society. Finished the period of its development, characterized by only
use of food, ie purely consumer attitudes towards environmental
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
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