- Levels of organization of living matter,
- Populations, communities, ecosystems,
- Forms of biological relationships in the community
- Positive attitude,
- Negative attitude,
- Neutral attitude,
- Circulation of matter and energy,
- The structure of the biosphere,
- Evolution of the biosphere,
- The current state of the environment
- Atmosphere - the outer shell of the biosphere,
- Biological productivity of ecosystems,
- Conservation and sustainable environmental futures,
Environmental problems of the biosphere
- Human impact on flora and fauna,
- Limits of stability,
- Natural resources and their use,
- Radioactive contamination of the biosphere
- Contamination of soil (
- Contamination of natural waters (
Anthropogenic impacts on the biosphere.
The current state of the environment.
Global processes of formation and motion of living matter in the biosphere are linked
and are accompanied by cycles of matter and energy. In contrast to the purely
geological processes, biogeochemical cycles, with the participation of living matter
have a much higher intensity, speed and number
involved in the turnover of the substance.
With the advent and development of human evolution has changed markedly.
In the early stages of civilization cutting and burning of forests for farming, grazing
livestock, fishing and hunting of wild animals, war devastated entire regions,
led to the destruction of plant communities, the extermination of certain types
animals. With the development of civilization, especially since the Industrial Revolution
late middle ages, mankind has possessed all the more powerful, more and more
ability to engage and be used to meet its growing
needs of the huge mass of matter - both organic, living, and
These changes in the biosphere processes began in XX century as a result
the next industrial revolution. The rapid development of power engineering, mechanical engineering,
chemistry, transport has meant that human activity has
comparable in scale with the natural energy and material
processes occurring in the biosphere. The intensity of human consumption of
energy and material resources increases in proportion to population
and even ahead of its growth. Vernadsky wrote: "A man becomes
geological force that could change the face of the Earth. "This is a warning
prophetically true. Effects of human (undertaken by man)
activity is manifested in the depletion of natural resources, pollution of the biosphere
industrial waste, destruction of natural ecosystems, changing the structure
Earth's surface, climate change. Anthropogenic effects lead to
violation of virtually all the natural biogeochemical cycles.
In accordance with the density of population change and the degree of human impact
on the environment. With the present level of development of productive forces
activities of human society affects the biosphere in general.
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
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